27 April, 2016 – Episode 564 – This Week in Science Podcast (TWIS)

April 29th, 2016

Interview with Dr. Cat Lutz from the Jackson Lab, Stabby Animals, Needy Nightshade, Alien Oceanography, Brain Thesaurus, Addictive Genes, Antibiotic Progress, Fragile X Memory, Soil Bacteria, Dirty Wine, Corvids Are Smart, A New Moon, Old Climate Records, And Much More…

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Disclaimer, Disclaimer, Disclaimer!!!
So much progress has taken place over the past few centuries
that it is hard at times to consider what effort each individual advance required to reach the modern age…
When we think of the great contributors to science
many names come quickly to mind…
But chances are none of the names you may be thinking belong to mice…
And yet behind many of our Nobel Prize winning human scientists…
There is a focused and dedicated team of research mice…
Living lives even more dedicated to science than the Humans who employ them.
And let us also not forget the trusty Lab Rat,
who’s stoic and steadfast use of logic and mastery of emotional equilibrium
is the basis of much modern psychology…
And while our whiskered cousins may not claim credit for the results…
The modern era of science and medicine would not have been possible…
Without their dedication, brave commitments and heroic contributions…
Research Mouse, Lab Rat, we salute you here on
This Week in Science,
Coming up Next…

Interview with Dr. Cathleen Lutz of the Jackson Laboratory. Dr. Cat Lutz is head the Mouse Models Repository at The Jackson Laboratory, and is responsible for managing all aspects of the Repository, which consists of over 1800 strains for distribution to the scientific community.

Blair’s Animal Corner!
How stabby?
That is the scientific question a group of researchers asked this week. But what is really fascinating is how they measured it!

Deadly nightshade have invertebrate friends
When being poisonous isn’t good enough to keep herbivores away, nightshade has found a way to enlist the help of ants, by bribing them with what is essentially sugar-water.

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Alien Oceanography
The Cassini mission explored Saturn’s moon Titan over several years, and a new paper out describes the moon’s polar oceans, specifically Ligeia Mare. It appears to contain mainly methane, have a soft bottom, and be surrounded by wetlands.

Brain Thesaurus
A new fMRI project has mapped the brain’s organization of language in native English speakers, and found that while there are differences between individual brains the rough semantic categories are the same across individuals.

Addictive Genes…
Rat study confirms pre-disposure to addiction.

Teixobactin Progress
Chemists have succeeded in synthetically producing the novel anti-bacterial agent Teixobactin that was discovered just last year. While still a long way from being able to use the compound for treatment of human infections, it is the first step in creating a new class of antibiotic drug.

Cancelling Mutation Effects
Researchers used an experimental cancer drug called Nutlin-3 to succesfully reverse the memory effects of a genetic mutation causing Fragile X syndrome in mice.

Soil Bacteria
Nitrogen fixers are so important, but they don’t really need the plants.

Can you really taste the soil your wine was grown in?
Sort of…

Corvids are Smart
In a non-shocking study, ravens appeared to be just as good at solving a food puzzle as chimpanzees, proving once again that size doesn’t matter, when it comes to your brain.

MakeMake Moon!
Hubble Space telescope discovered a moon orbiting the Kuiper belt object called Makemake making it even more Pluto-like.

Climate Data
Lots of it from ancient farmers and merchants corroborate the effect of the Industrial Revolution on the Earth’s increasing temperature.

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20 April, 2016 – Episode 563 – This Week in Science Podcast (TWIS)

April 22nd, 2016

Bad Bleaching Down Under, Earth Day Plus, Dutch Decisions, Moving Forward, Stinky Lemurs, Mice On Ice, Panamanian Primate, CRISPR Mushrooms, CRISPR Advances, Iron Eaters, Ant Rafts, Interview w/ Jess Pelaez from Blueprint Earth, And Much More…

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Disclaimer, Disclaimer, Disclaimer!!!
The world as we know it was not always the world as we know it…
It has changed a lot over 4 billion years…
It started without much oxygen…
If you were to time travel 3billion years into the past you would suffocate on the air…
But oxygen producing prokaryotic algae changed that… it took a while…
but slowly over hundreds of millions of years… …
Tiny whiffs of oxygen were released from blue green algae in the sea…
Filled the atmosphere with so much oxygen that it turned the planet into a giant snowball…
But time again was our friend and the planet found equilibrium with an oxygen rich atmosphere…
Life flourished…
Yeas there were still trials, asteroid impacts, global warming and cooling, some life survived, most did not…
But just enough survived to allow us time to evolve into Humans…
And as much as we Humans would like to think that the story ends here, that with the arrival of us, the world has reached its final and permanent state…
We know better.
We know that the tiny emissions of oxygen were enough to change the balance of an atmosphere in the past…
We know that massive emission of Co2 today will change the balance of an atmosphere tomorrow…
And the reason we know it is because we have frequently tuned into
This Week in Science,
Coming up next…

Great Barrier Reef Bleaching
93% of the Great Barrier Reef is experiencing bleaching to some degree this year, and while there is an expecteded 50% mortality in the northern sector, the central and southern portions are expected to recover.

An Agreement For The Ages?
Obama and China’s Prime Minster are expected to sign a climate treaty on April 22nd that will inspire countries around the world to proactively work to mitigate the effects of climate change.

No Gas Cars?
The Dutch have voted to ban sales of gas-powered vehicles by 2025, and while the motion has yet to be ratified by the Dutch Senate, it’s a drastic move.

10 Years To Sustainable?
A new analysis suggests that it could be possible to move completely away from fossil fuel use… if there is a coordinated and organized effort.

Interview with Jess Pelaez, Co-founder and CEO of Blueprint Earth

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Lemurs are stinky!
And know best how to combine their glorious odors!!

Lab rats might be too cold to give us any good information.
They might not be responding to our new cancer treatments because they’re chilly! Crank up the heat in honor of #worldlabanimalday

Panama Papers full of monkey business
1st North American Monkey discovered.

GM Mushrooms Are OK!
Mushrooms genetically modified to stay fresh longer using the CRISPR/Cas9 editing system have been approved by the USDA.

A new advancement might bring us closer to treating human genetic diseases.

Iron eating microbes
New microbes have been discovered using iron as an energy source instead of oxygen.

Ants have jobs inside their rafts.
And they stick to what they are best at. Most interesting, ants on the bottom don’t die!!!

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13 April. 2016 – Episode 562 – This Week in Science Podcast (TWIS)

April 15th, 2016

Breakthrough Starshot, Spaceship Bouncy House, Space X Win!, Clouds Need Ice, Bearcat Or Popcorn, Moths To Flame, Y No Meanders, LSD For Brains, Cure For Paralysis?, Vikings, Tilt-A-Whirl Earth, White Nose Hope, Immoral Scientists?, And Much More…

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Disclaimer, disclaimer, disclaimer!
The following flow of information will pass through your ear holes
and nestle into your brain
where it may or may not set up a permanent residence.
While there is considerable risk of information retention,
that risk is not limited to what you are about to hear,
but may spread to other sources of information you seek out as a result of a condition
simply referred to by experts as “Curiosity”
What is more frightening and cause for alarm is that this same nestling of information and resultant Curiosity condition can occur with any form of information you allow to pass through your ear holes…
In light of the comparable damage you could be doing to yourself by instead listening to
political pontificating, or athletic event color commentary…
or economic reverse forecast mortgage stock tips…
or anything else with jingles, sales scams or useless product pitches…
Catching curiosity in any of these traps leads to certain and irrevocable doom…
So we think you have made the best possible by choice
and that only limited harm could come to you by tuning into
This Week in Science…
Coming up Next.

Breakthrough Starshot
100 million dollars and a bunch of big names are teaming up to send a tiny space kite to Alpha Centauri by way of laser.

Spaceship Bouncy House
Space X’s Dragon capsule succesfully delivered supplies to the ISS last week. Among them, a new inflatable module for living and working.

Space X Win!
Finally, the Space X team successfully returned its booster rocket to the water-based landing pad with a landing that can only be called a perfect 10.

This Week in the end of the world…
Not enough ice in clouds = faster warming

Why do bearcats smell like popcorn? Or, why does popcorn smell like binturong pee?
A special compound, and just the right environmental factors, give these two things their mouth-watering taste.

Evolution moves fast. If you don’t stop and look around every once in a while, you might miss it.
Moths living in the city have learned to avoid light. That keeps them from getting fried, but it could also stop them from being such skilled pollinators…

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Y no neanderthals today…
The Y chromosome went the way of the dodos.

Another reason Neanders went away
Diseases aren’t nice.

LSD in the Brain
MRI imaging showed that the brain loses connectivity between areas important to “sense of self”, but other areas of the brain that are normally segregated become more integrated.

Chips in the Brain
A paralyzed guy with a chip in his head has demonstrated improved hand mobility thanks to a special device for bypassing his spinal injury.

they likely came to America before Columbus.

Tilt-a-whirl Earth
Water in the center of continents drives Earth’s wobble, according to a new analysis of evidence from the GRACE satellite.

There may be hope for tiny brown bats after-all.
Some are surviving, despite the white-nose menace. Even if it’s only 10%, it means bats may not end up extinct! Go go go, little bats!!!

Immoral Scientists
A series of 10 studies of people’s perceptions of scientists found that scientists are seen as robots valuing knowledge over all else, and that not only are scientists perceived as immoral, but capable of immoral actions.

Words For Snow
New evidence supports the idea that words reflect the culture of a place. Around the world, warmer cultures had fewer linguistic distinctions around the concepts of ice and snow than colder ones.

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06 April, 2016 – Episode 561 – This Week in Science Podcast (TWIS)

April 8th, 2016

More Info From LIGO, Not So Fast, Not Star Stuff, Not Scottish Deer, Fiddler Poker Crabs, Agro Salmon, Cyborg DNA?, Getchyer Veggie Genes!, Bouncy Metal Glass, Juice Those Cells, Nightmare Juice, Few Human Cuckoos, Do Robots Turn You On?, And Much More!

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Disclaimer, disclaimer, disclaimer!
The world loves a mystery…
And perhaps more than a good mystery, the world loves to solve mysteries…
Of all the mysteries out there, one seems to always be lurking in the darkness…
On the edges of our understanding…
In the peripheral of our perception…
Further out than our furthest most fathomable faculties can affirm…
Just barely beyond the best guesses of our most brilliant scientific minds…
And that edgy, peripherally unfathomed, lurking mystery has a name…
Because there is not really one mystery lurking out there…
Just the next one…
And with each mystery we solve another takes its place…
And another… and another…
So many that there will likely never come a day when we don’t have reason enough to say
This week in Science
Coming up … Next.

More Info From LIGO
After finding evidence of the first gravitational wave, scientists from LIGO are using the information gleaned from their single data point to estimate future balck hole merger findings, which they think will be pretty common and easy to pick up with our instruments in about 3-4 years.

Not So Fast
Turns out last year’s fast radio burst finding, which researchers thought had an extended afterglow that helped them to pinpoint the burst’s galaxy of origin, didn’t actually have a glow. New analysis find the glow to emanate from a supermassive black hole in a distant active galactic nucleus.

Not Star Stuff
A computer simulation of the formation of super-massive black holes finds that they do not and cannot form from the merger of stellar black holes, but are different beasts entirely. What kind is as yet unknown.

Scottish Deer, not so Scottish after all
But, where the come from is unclear.

Fiddler crabs would be good at poker
Expert bluffers, they can intimidate competitors despite being less than a whole original crab.

Agro salmon
Salmon act more agressive in lighter-colored tanks. This could help aquaculture in a big way. But could it also tell us something about ourselves??

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Building a cyborg from the DNA up…
This story isn’t really about cyborgs, but new diodes made from DNA that might just help us exceed Moore’s Law.

Getchyer Veggie Genes!
Drinking milk is not the only dietary pressure that seems to have influenced human genetic variation. A recent study from Cornell found a high likelihood that a specific segment of DNA has made its way into lineages of vegetarians, while it is missing from that of Inuit fish eaters.
This study was also an example of This Week in Totally Getting It Wrong
Many outlets in the mainstream media got this news wrong. At least, the headline writers did, and suggested that eating a vegetarian diet would lead to changes in individual genomes OR that having the so-called vegetarian allele would make you more prone to cancer and heart disease. The first is totally untrue, while the second is mostly untrue.

BMG = Bouncy Metal Glass
Is this the new transparent aluminum we have been waiting for?

Juice Those Cells
Preliminary research with rats suggests that microvessicles extracted from stem cells can protect brains from injury.

Nightmare Juice
Nightmarish larvae ward off bacteria by being extremely pokey. Now, how can we use this info to our advantage??

White nose on the west coast
…It finally happened… Will we beat it in time??

Few Human Cuckoos
Turns out guys know when they are raising someone else’s kid.

Do Robots Turn You On?
Science says yes.

Hope for Florida yet…
Kind of.

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30 March, 2016 – Episode 560 – This Week in Science Podcast (TWIS)

April 1st, 2016

Venter’s Back!, Saturn’s Moons, Geysers of Enceladus, Hobbit Floresiensis Update, Out Of Africa, Blood-thirsty Prairie Dogs, Smart Skuas, Ant Antennae, Puppy Transplants, Cure For Aging, Stem Cells For Spines, Fridge Lasers, And Much More!

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Disclaimer, disclaimer, disclaimer!
The first time Human ancestors left the tree to go walking in the wide open world…
They must have been afraid of everything…
Everything must have been afraid of them…
Nothing much noticed them until it was much too late and Humanity had spread world wide
In any case… the few things that were noticed or not,
caused or overcame fear, had one thing in common
Our ancestors ability to acquire knowledge made them powerful enough to set out with ape brains
And conquer a planet
And so in the spirit of our ape brained heritage we offer you knowledge
That you may set out from the trees of humanity
And conquer the world as you see fit
Yes, it time once again for
This week in science
Coming up next…

Venter’s Back!
After a couple of years without a peep from the J. Craig Venter Institute about synthetic bacteria, they are back with a paper in Science detailing their work into creating the world’s most minimal genome, a key step in developing a genome from scratch.

Saturn’s Moons
A new model of ring and moon formation around Saturn suggests that the inner moons only formed recently within 100 million years or so. This interpretation doesn’t bode well for the possibility of life on Enceladus.

Geysers of Enceladus
Speaking of Enceladus, another paper modelling the dynamics of the water jets on inner moon of Saturn concludes that the forces might be self-sustaining for periods of up to a million years.

Hobbit floresiensis Update
Dating of tools left behind by Homo floriensis suggests that they died out earlier than previously thought… did they die while Homo sapiens spread?

Australopithecus out of Africa… (great rift valley anyway)
Fossil finds put A. afarensis much further east than previously discovered.

Blood-thirsty prairie dogs
Killing squirrels for sport. Or, because they asked for it?

Antarctic bird much smarter than we thought
An antarctic bird called a skua can differentiate individual humans, and they hold a grudge…

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Ant Antennae
Not just for picking up odors anymore! These insectoid tuning-forks are also for sending messages.

Fecal Transplants For Puppies!
Poop’s got what puppies need when they have diarreah.

Poop Safety
An analysis of fecal transplants found that non-pathogenic and bacterial viruses squeak through the screening process. It’s unknown what kinds of effects these microbes have on recipients.

The Cure For Aging
Is exercise. Older athletes were much better off than non-exercising peers in a recent study.

Stem Cells For Spines
For the first time, researchers showed regeneration of corticospinal pathways in injured spinal cords of paralyzed rats using stem cell grafts. These neurons specifically transmit signals for voluntary movement, and success in this area could lead to better prognoses for paralysis victims.

Green lights could save sea turtles
Turtles hate ’em, fish don’t mind ’em. Green lights are a win-win!

Micro-sanctuaries make all the difference
Some might say that saving a little forest doesn’t do any good, but it turns out that it just might save a species from extinction.

Fridge Laser?
Engineers come up with the darndest ideas.

Chicken Pox Possibility
In a study, researchers found a reduced risk of gliomas in those people who had chicken pox as children.

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23 March, 2016 – Episode 559 – This Week in Science Podcast (TWIS)

March 25th, 2016

Blowing In The Wind, Hansens’s Paper Published, First Light, Toxo Rage?, Invasive Costs, Panda Ears, Stand Up!, Dwarf Space, Bacterial Communities, Make Hearts, Wolfy Hyenas?, And Much More!

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Disclaimer, disclaimer, disclaimer!
What you are about to here is unlike anything else you have ever heard…
We are certain of this for the very inescapable reason that nothing you are about to hear was known before…
This is not a recap, a redux, or reinterpretation of an old formulaic plot line,
archaic theme or out of print fiction magazine…
What you are about to hear is all new…
So new, that much of it is happening now…
So current are the stories…
That there is a chance of getting swept up by them…
So intimately and indispensably involved with our daily lives are the tales to be told,
That there may be tears of fond farewell when it’s over…
But it’s never over…
at least not now it isn’t…
in fact it hasn’t even begun…
Because if it had begun it would make absolutely no sense for me to say
This Week In Science…
Coming Up Next.

Blowing In The Wind
The next 100 years might see a reduced Atlantic dust stream from the Saharan desert as global temperatures climb, and tropical circulation decreases. A recent study looks at the mechanisms for how Sarahan dust gets into the atmosphere in the first place, and at how it has changed over the past century, in order to make predictions about the future.

Hansens’ Paper Published
We reported on it earlier this year, but the paper has finally passed peer review, and predicts much higher sea level rise than the IPCC report mainly due to stratification of cold and warm waters due to ice melt.

First Light
The Kepler space telescope has detected the “shock breakout” of a supernova. This is the first time that we have seen the instant of ignition for the massive stellar explosion.

A parasite that needs no introduction… at it again
This time Toxoplasma gondii is possibly linked to rage.

What is the true cost of an invasive species?
It could be far more than we ever imagined…

Panda ears are much more sensitive than we thought
Their hearing is so good, they hear sounds in the ultrasonic range. The problem is, that means human activity could be disturbing their ability to communicate and breed.

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Stand up or die!
(sitting can kill you)

Ceres Spotlight
A volcanic-looking dome rises from Occator Crater, and indicates recent geologic activity. Also, more in-depth analyses suggest water ice just below the surface and mainly near the poles.

Pluvian Lakes
Frozen lakes of nitrogen on Pluto. Looks like it!

It Takes a village… of bacteria…
Paradigm shift: ‘We need to study lumps of bacteria’

Bacteria In Space
One species of bacteria from Earth grew 60% better on the ISS than every other species.

Heart Repair
A new method looks promising for repairing damaged hearts.

Rats make people depressed
More than crime does.

Rough times make unlikely friends
Wolves and hyenas are traveling together through Israel’s Negev desert, looking for food, alive or dead.

Chemistry Printer!
Print anything on demand? It sure sounds like the beginning of the future.

Cannibalism Killed ‘Em?
A model suggests that Neandertals aided their own demise because they cannibalized themselves to death.

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16 March, 2016 – Episode 558 – This Week in Science Podcast (TWIS)

March 18th, 2016

High Energy Particles, Protein Puzzles, Illinois Sea Monster, Presidential Speech, Interview w/ Liz Warren re: Humans In Space, Pandas Do It Wrong, Frog Directions, Stork Junkies, Microbial Resistance, Plant Eating Spiders, Alpha Go Wins!, And Much More!

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Disclaimer, disclaimer, disclaimer!
Following hour of programming has not been tested on humans
By listening, you are agreeing to participate in an experiment on intellectual stimulus…
While all the content has been tested scientifically…
A friend of the show who’s wife is a lawyer has convinced us that by disclaiming at the intro
And alerting you to the general potential for increased intellectual stimuli to be habit forming…
No liability can befall us…
Of course, we already secretly know this to be true which is why we are here again on
This week in science…
Coming up next.

High Energy Particles
An experiment analyzing cherenkov radiation in out atmosphere has discovered the source of incredibly high energy cosmic radiation in our galaxy – SgrA, the massive black hole that lies at its center.

Protein Puzzles
Researchers are puzzling through the biochemistry of proteins, and a new study uses a new mathematical tool paired with traditional biochemistry experiments to pin-point important amino acid sequnces influencing the structure and function of the dopamine 2 receptor.

Speaking Like a President?
Presidential speak is geared for junior high level comprehension

The Tully Monster Existed!
Sea Monster stalking Illinois for the past 60 years has been identified

Interview with Liz Warren from NASA, who works on science on the ISS.

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Another way Pandas are doing it wrong
Females won’t stay in one place, and therefore make it even harder for males to find them and perpetuate the species…

Frogs with an interesting sense of direction
Females remember just where their eggs were, but males play the odds, assuming all the eggs in their territory are theirs!

Adaptable Or Not?
A tale of different creatures is playing out before our eyes. In one study, we find that storks, known for long migration routes, are choosing to stay home for the winter as a result of the combination of climate change and human created landfills. The birds have adapted to a situation we created, but will they continue to adapt as we change it further.

A second study finds that microbes in soil are not as adaptable as we have surmised, and were unable to change their respiration rates in response to a change in climate over a 17 year period. This raises questions for agriculture and ecosystems as climate around the world undergoes change.

Control Factors
A landmark study investigating genetic versus epigenetic factors in obesity and inheritance found that epigenetics are highly influential in offspring responses to diet.

Spiders eat plants!
Does that make them less scary?? No?? Bummer

Would you play a video game with an Orangutan?
Interactive video games could help enrich primates’ lives, and potentially give us a new avenue for communication!

Alpha Go Recap
Holy SkyNet, Batman!

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09 March, 2016 – Episode 557 – This Week in Science Podcast (TWIS)

March 11th, 2016

Snow-capped Pluvian Mountaintops, About Those Clouds, Adding To Antibiotics, Ant Brains, It’s Not The Sperm, Same Sex Power Play, Pump Water For Climytia, Magnetic Mind Control, World Robot Domination, Neat Bees, Zika Brains, And Much More!

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Disclaimer, disclaimer, disclaimer!
It’s big world out there…
Not just in the global geographical sense of things…
Yes there are a lot of places to go and see and a wildly diverse range of landscapes to take in…
But the human world is bigger than the planet we happen to be visiting…
For the human world has gone far beyond the visible horizons…
Because the human world is also the world of mind
And within the human mind we can take in landscapes without worldly location
We imagine our way into a thousand lives through our fiction,
as if living them out ourselves…
We walk through fields of physics,
plucking particles from the pasture as though they were wild flowers
We engineer our way to distant planets,
and invented vision to see far beyond our galactic borders
And we re-invent our understanding of everything at every opportunity to improve our knowledge,
our understanding,
and our ability to take on challenges that once had seemed impossible…
It’s a big world out there…
But there’s a much bigger one between your ears and nowhere is that made more clear than
This Week in Science…
Coming up next…

Snow-capped Pluvian Mountaintops
Mountains covered with methane abound on Pluto, according to new evidence from the New Horizon’s mission. An instrument named Ralph imaged the mountains rising out of a region named Cthulu, and found infrared evidence of ice on the mountaintops.

About Those Clouds
Whether or not Pluto’s thin atmosphere is able to form clouds, indicating an active gas cycle, is a question that was brought up this week with reports from New Scientist suggesting preliminary evience of said cloud formation. Note: no one from the New Horizon’s team has weighted in on this yet, so as of now we still don’t know. Please, stop using this as a reason to re-planetize Pluto.

Adding To Antibiotics
Scientists have developed a new method for reinvigorating old antibiotics: add another compound to the mix. When small, biologically inert chemicals called tarocins are added to antibiotics, like methicillin, it renders resistant bacteria once again susceptible.

Ant brains follow their environment
Visual brain areas increased in size or shrank according to visual needs.

Seminal fluid: the plot thickens
It turns out a male can transfer vital information through mating events, even when the female is not in a fertile stage. What mysteries the male “investment” still contains!

Same-sex behavior in beetles is a power play
Beetles may use same-sex sexual behavior to diffuse tension and feel out opponents, as well as to demonstrate social status. Well, that’s one way to get out of a fight!

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How to beat global sea rise?
Getting wetter while warming?

Magnetic Mind Control
Researchers reported developing a magnetically stimulated ion channel, which they linked to touch receptive cells in zebra fish and to dopaminergic neurons in mice. When stimulated, the fish tried to move their tails away from an imagined source of touch, and the mice spent more time in an area of their cage with a magnetic field. The work suggests a new tool has arrived for the study of the brain and behavior.

World Robot Domination
An unpublished study suggests that we might just follow them to our doom.

Our Immune Past
Endogenous retroviruses might be tightly involved in the functioning of our immune systems.

The Zika-Brain Link
Although preliminary, a study shows that neural progenitor cells can be infected with Zika, and the infection leads to a reduction in cell growth and division.

What Is Maturity?
It seems having a fully developed pre-frontal cortex plays a major role. A recently published study found that rather than inhibit certain actions, adult monkey’s brains act to strengthen alternatives.

Would you rather be smart or healthy?
Nature makes us choose. But is the trade-off worth it?

Bees are compulsively neat
…Because living in a hive weakens their immune system.

The AI Is Winning
One game down out of 5, and Google’s AlphaGo is the winner so far in a series of matches against one of the world’s best Go players.

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